Anxiety

Ansiedad
The anxiety is an unpleasant and complex emotion, appears when we perceive a threat, then put us alert; the breath accelerates , the muscles tense , the heart late more quickly, besides in the cognitive plan appears fear and tension.
With this definition could confuse with stress, the difference is in that the stress is not an emotion, can unchain in stress but no necessarily.

The anxiety is anticipatoria appears in front of a determinate situacion, p.ej. Speak in public. The diagram would be the following: anxiety - speak in public.
 
The anxiety gives before it occur the fact.

The stress is the consequence in front of situations , p.ej. Have a lot of work, the diagram would be the following: have a lot of work - am estresado.

The anxiety has very diverse symptoms:

Sweats, palpitaciones, oppression in the breast, fault of air, seasicknesses, difficulty to take decisions, insecurity, difficulty of concentration, irritability, increase of distractions...
 
Types of anxiety:
  
1-Agoraphobia: it includes no only fears to open places, but also other related with them, like fears to the crowds and to the difficulty to be able to escape immediately to a sure place ( CIE10).
It can have agoraphobia with crisis of anguish or if crisis.

2-Crisis of anguish the person feels an irrational panic, accompanied of physical symptoms, the person can inluso think that it dies .

The physical symptoms of anxiety produce due to the fact that hiperventilamos.

So that they produce the if́ntomas of the hiperventilación is necessary that the person thiś taking más oxígeno of the that needs in this moment. This can occur by a respiración superficial and ráask.

And́stos if́ntomas of hiperventilación are inofensivos but the person interprets them with fear, appearing the fear to that they appear the if́ntomas, this fear does that hiperventile but often with the consistent apparition of the symptoms más often and appears the fear to the fear .

Criteros For diagnostic of crisis of anguish(DSM-IV-TR):

Temporary apparition and isolated of fear or intense unrest, accompanied of four (or more) of the following symptoms, that initiate sharply and achieve his maximum expression in the first 10 min:

- Palpitaciones, shakes of the heart or elevation of the cardiac frequency
- Sudoración
- Tremors or shakes
- Feeling of drown or fault of breath
- Feeling of atragantarse
- Oppression or thoracic unrest
- Naúseas Or abdominal annoyances
- Unsteadiness, seasickness or fainting
- Desrealización (Feeling of unreality) or despersonalización (be separated of one same)
- Fear to lose the control or go back crazy
- Fear to die
- Paresthesias (feeling of numbness or hormigueo)
- Escalofrios Or sofocaciones

3- social Phobia: it is the fear to the social situations that many times finish averting.The people with social phobia can have fear to speak in public because they think that the other daran account that estan nervous, can be until they avert to eat in public, drink... To some extent all can put us nervous if have an interview, have to give a conference... But only it establishes the diagnostic of social phobia when these thoughts and behaviours of avoidance interfere in the life cuotidiana of the person: in his relacion with the family, friends, work, and arrives even until incapacitating.Inside the social phobia can distinguish two types:

-Specific social phobia: the fear is to some concrete social contexts but no to all: eat in public, speak with people of authority...

-Social phobia generalised:  self-evident in all or in almost all the contexts that involve social interaction.It can give place to the apparition of other problems: :drink,depression...The social phobia self-evident to cognitive level(thoughts that express fear to be evaluated negatively by the other),to physiological level(response of anxiety with rubor facial) and conductual (behaviours to avert said situation, does not do lacking to escape physically many times show distraidos to the other).

4-specific Phobias: it is an irrational and disproportionate fear in front of objects or determinate situations.
p.ej:aracnofobia ( To the spiders),acrofobia (to the heights),equinofobia ( to the horses),Thalassofobia ( to the sea).

5-Obsessive-compulsive disorder (TOC): the subject present compulsiones (actions) or obsessions that interfere in his daily life, the person can recognise that ésto is not normal, to some extent all present rituals of comprobación p.ej. Ensure us several times that the door is closed..., to diagnose like transtorno obsessive-compulsive the thoughts and actions interfere in the life cuotidiana of the individual. The actions turn into compulsiones and the thoughts in obsessions.

TYPES OF TOC:

- Wash or cleansing: excessive wash ( of hands, of the body, of some part of the body),excessive cleansing of the house, clothes, objects.

- Mental: it consists in the urgency to carry out a mental task p.ej: count, repeat determinate number of times a thought...

- Of verification: they verify that they have not hurt or that do not go to hurt to other people or to if same, or that has not spent any misfortune. P.ej: Check that the door was enclosed, the key of the gas, the light turned off...

- Accumulators: accrue things, objects that do not need or that are not important.

- Religious: without they do not do determinate action God will punish them.

- Sexual: they ask obscenities, make obscene gestures...

- Assault: say insults to other people, relative obsessions to hurt physicist to somebody

The most frequent is the one of wash or cleansing, afterwards the one of verification (check doors and windows, check appearances related with the security)

ILLNESSES ASSOCIATED To THE TOC:

Disorder of panic, disorders depresivos, abuse of alcohol and pathological game, disorders of diet, control of the impulses (syndrome of The Tourette, tricotilomanía, cleptomanía i exhibitionism),disorder dismórfico corporal, disorders of the personality, hypochondria, schizophrenia.

TREATMENT ANXIETY: 

Farmacological treatment simultaneously with the psychological treatment, inside the psychological treatment the cognitive therapy-conductual has showed more effective.

The day in day out of a person with toc is very difficult to spend since the illness affects in every aspect of his life: familiar, labour, friendships... Appearing problems in all they, with the consistent anxiety and stress, but with the treatment adapted the person can do a normal life.

6-Disorder of anxiety generalised: the person finds always in state of anxiety without apparent cause that justify it, estan always concerned, the symptoms of anxiety have to appear minimum during six months.

7-Disorder by stress postraumático: it appears after a traumatic experience.

Exploratory questionnaire of anxiety (Only has orientative value since it is necessary a professional assessment):

                                                                                                                                           YES     No
1-it would say of you same that it is a nervous person?                                               

2-it feels you always concerned?                                                                   

3-they say Him other people that concerns too much by the things?                      

4-Think you that is true?     

6-it Thinks that something bad goes him  to spend?    

7-it Thinks that something bad goes him to suceder to his família or near friends?     

8-it tires very facilmente or very soon?     

9-it nettles or it angers very facilmente?     

10-Has aches or muscular tension?     

11-Has difficulties to sleep or awake very facilmente?     

12-These worries have affected to his work,social life,his personal relations?     

13-it Is difficult for you control his worry?     

If it has answered that yes to the majority of the questions is indicativo of anxiety clinicamente significant.
The anxiety  forms part of the human being, is necessary a true degree of anxiety, since us moviliza, does not help to do things, but when it exceeds some limits spends all the contrary paralyses us and blocks.
 
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